Dating different colleges
Permission granted to Edinburgh Corporation by royal charter in 1582 to establish a university, although Edinburgh uses its opening in 1583 as its date of foundation. Attempts in the 17th century to gain a royal charter for the university itself (as opposed to the corporation) failed due to the overthrow of James II and VII.
No new universities were successfully founded in England or Scotland after 1600 until the nineteenth century, although the eighteenth century saw the establishment of a number of dissenting academies, medical schools such as St George's (1733) and the London Hospital Medical College (1785), and the Royal Veterinary College (1791).
Universities founded during the 1960s divide into two main groups: the plateglass universities, so called because of their dominant architectural style, and the former colleges of advanced technology that were converted to universities following the Robbins Report.
The plate glass universities are differentiated from the civic universities by not having been university colleges submitting students for external examination, but instead being created ab initio as universities with their own degree-awarding powers (under the supervision of academic oversight councils).
The Andersonian Institute, a precursor of the University of Strathclyde, was established in 1796 and used the title Anderson's University between 18, but the University of Strathclyde did not receive a royal charter granting university status until 1964.
The approach of creating institutions with degree-awarding powers was pioneered by the University of Keele, which was established in 1949 as the University College of North Staffordshire with its own degree award powers, under the oversight of Oxford, Manchester and Birmingham.All were established as universities by royal charter, with an accompanying act of parliament to transfer the property and assets of the university college to the newly incorporated university.As this article lists universities by date of foundation, this section lists only the universities that gained their status in the period 1900–1959.Current successor institute is the University of Manchester The University of Wales and the Victoria University were founded as federal universities incorporating earlier colleges and the University of London was founded as an examination board (becoming a federal university in 1900).
The federal universities are discussed further below.For the modern (post 1800) universities, the date of achieving university status (by royal charter, act of parliament, order in council, or decision of Companies House) is given.