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the situation with respect to conversion will be the same in all these cases with the affirmatives. The Ilahiyat is the fourth section of this work, and deals with the metaphysical science. 26 AMOS BERTOLACCI portrayed in the same passage as containing “the science related to [Aristode’s] Metaphysics .” 3 Therefore, although it is not a literal com- mentary on the Metaphysics , but rather a reworking of it, the Ildhiyat is deeply dependent on the Metaphysics , 4 In the present contribution two examples of the reception of Aristode’s Metaphysics in the Ildhiyat are provided.
10 AP, 25a37-41: “When it comes to possible premises ... The Kitab as-Sifa ’ is the most important and influential philosophical summa of Avicenna. Brill, 1988), 51 (see also the remarks at 110-112).
P stands for possi- bility, C, for contingency, N for necessity, I for impossibility (I dis- cuss these modal operators below). Craemer-Ruegenberg (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1985) 207- 218. 7 The familiar rules of conversion of assertoric premises are as follow: Aa B — ► Bi A Ai B -fa Bi A Ae B aa fie A I mention the assertorics only to point out that for Avicenna their conversion is not as simple as one finds in Aristotle.
Aa B is to be read as “A applies to all B ”; 5 Ai B means “A applies to some B,” etc. AVICENNA’S RECEPTION OF ARISTOTELIAN MODAL SYLLOGISTICS 5 proof .
Second, Avicenna in the Ilahlyat always employs huwlya in the meaning of “existent” and “essence,” never in the meaning of “sameness.” As to the first point, huwlya is the rendering of ov in the earl- iest and most extensive Arabic translation of the Metaphysics. 7 Ustat invariably translates ov in the Metaphysics as huwlya . Endress, “Die wissenschaftliche Literatur: Die Entwicklung der Fachsprache,” in Grundriss der Arabischen Philologie, Band III: Supplement, ed. 7 The extant parts of this translation are preserved in Averroes’ Tafsir (“Commen- tary”) of Aristotle’s Metaphysics ; see Averroes, Tafsir ma ba‘d at-Tabi c at , ed. Endress, “The Circle of al-Kindl, Early Arabic Translations from the Greek and the Rise of Islamic Philosophy,” in The Ancient Tradition in Christian and Islamic Hellenism, ed. D’Ancona, “L’influence du vocabulaire arabe: causa prima est esse tantum,” in L’elaboration du vocabulaire philosophique au Moyen Age, Actes du Colloque international de Louvain-la-Neuve et Leuven 12-14 septembre 1998 organise par la Societe intemationale pour I’etude de la Philosophic Medievale, ed. Huwlya is quite commonly used by Arab philosophers, both before and after Avicenna. Michot shows that four literal quotations of the Metaphysics according to Ustat’s translation occur in this text: 45.12—14 (corresponding to A 26, 1023b32-34); 46.3-9 (corresponding to A 5, 101 5b36 — 10 1 6a 1 ; 1016al-4); 47.8-12 (corresponding to Z 11, 1037a22-24); 49.1-5 (corresponding to Z 10, 1035b6-8; Z 10, 1035b 10). Brill, 1998), 1—117, with facing French translation. Goichon, Lexique de la langue philosophique d’Ibn Slna (Avicenne) (Paris: Desclee de Brouwer, 1938), 411-413 (see also ead., “Huwiyya,” EP, 4-645), records eleven occurrences of huwlya (three of which are taken from the Ildhivdt), and trans- lates this term as “ipseite,” “substance individuelle” and “essence.” In the Vocabulaires compares d’Aristote et d’Ibn Slna (Paris: Desclee du Brouwer, 1939), 36a, Goichon regards huwlya in the meaning of “substance individuelle” as equivalent to jiptnxri ovoid, and in the meaning of “ipseite” as equivalent to orcep xo5e xt. 14 On the other hand, nowhere in the Ilahiyat does huwiya mean “sameness,” though it is sometimes translated in this way.
All of this does not entail, however, that Ustat’s was the only translation of the Metaphysics that Avicenna used; I point out Avicenna’s use of a different translation in my communication “La ricezione del libro G della Aletafisica nell’ Ilahiyat del Kitab as-Sifa’ di Avicenna,” read at the international con- ference “Aristotele e i suoi esegeti neoplatonici, Logica e ontologia nelle interpre- tazioni greche e arabe,” C. R., Centro di Studio del Pensiero Antico/European Science Foundation, Network Late Antiquity and Arabic Thought, Rome 19—20 October, 2001. An English translation of Abu Rida’s edi- tion, including a comprehensive introduction and a detailed commentary, is avail- able in A. Ivry’s Al-Kindi’s Metaphysics (Albany: SUNY, 1974). The occurrences of huw Tya in Rashed/Jolivet’s edition are at 27.9 (“existence” Rashed/Jolivet; “being” Ivry), 35.14 (“existence” Rashed/Jolivet; “being” Ivry), 97.1, 3, 7, 10, 16 (“exist- ence” Rashed/Jolivet; “being” Ivry). Brill, 1892], 54-60; French translation, with textual remarks, in Th.-A. Among the occur- rences which Goichon does not take into account, huwlya means “existent” in the opening chapter (I, 2) of the Madhal (“Commentary on Porphyry’s Isagoge”) belong- ing to the Sifa’; see Madhal, 13.5, 13.7 (Latin translation in Avicennae peripatetici philosophi ac medicorum facile primi opera in lucem redacta . The term Avicenna uses in this work to signify “sameness” is distinct from huwiya , albeit similar to it, namely huwahuwiya.
BEFORE AND AFTER AVICENNA: Proceedings of the First Conference of the Avicenna Study Group DA VID C. AL-RAHIM Editors BRILL BEFORE AND AFTER AVICENNA ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY THEOLOGY AND SCIENCE Texts and Studies EDITED BY H. PINGREE VOLUME LII ’ ' 6 8 ' BEFORE AND AFTER AVICENNA Proceedings of the First Conference of the Avicenna Study Group EDITED BY DAVID C. AL-RAHIM BRILL LEIDEN • BOSTON 2003 This book is printed on acid-free paper Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Conference of the Avicenna Study Group (1st : 2001 : Yale University) Before and after Avicenna : proceedings of the First Conference of the Avicenna Study Group / edited by David C. 12 [Avi- cenna disagrees] similarly when [Aristotle] says that a negative assertoric [universal proposition] converts with a universal [negative assertoric proposition]. However, [it was given as a premise that] no B is A; this is an absurdity. I have checked the text of the Ilahiyat printed in the Cairo edition (= c) against MS Oxford, Pococke 110 (= PI 10), MS Oxford, Pococke 125 (= PI 25) and the Tehran lithograph (= t). Peters, 1980]; Avicenna Latinus, Liber de Philosophia prima sive Scientia divina, EX, Lexiques, cur. Being deeply, albeit freely, linked to the Metaphysics, the Ildhiyat had a tremendous impact on the reception of the Metaphysics in the subsequent history of medieval philosophy. Huwlya is preferred over mawgud in our texts because of the Arabic translation of the Metaphysics that Avicenna employed in these particular cases.
For if it is possible for A to belong to every or to some B, then it will be possible for B to belong to some A.” Avicenna contests this claim in Nagat, 30. Vrin, 1978); Avicenne, La Metaphysique du Shifa’, Livres de VI a X, Etudes musulmanes, XXVII, tr. 2 Avicenna states that it is “more accommodating to my Peripatetic colleagues” than his al-Hihna al-Masriqiya (“Eastern Philosophy”) or al-Masriqiyun (“The Easterners”); see Ibn Sina, as-Sfa’, al-Mantiq: al-XIad/jal, ed. I take into account two texts in which Avicenna anonymously quotes certain passages of the Metaphysics. They occur in chapter 4 of the sixth treatise (VI, 4) and chapter one of the seventh treatise (VII, 1).
Rather, if it is [by necessity], it is so in virtue of another necessity which is proper for everything that is contingent ( mumkin ). For the influence of the Ildhiyat on Albert the Great, see my ‘“Subtilius speculando,’ Le citazioni della Philosophia Prima di Avicenna nel Commento alia Metafisica di Alberto Magno,” Documenti e Studi sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale 9 (1998), 261-339; id., “Albert the Great, Metaph. The main purpose of this analysis is to identify the sources in Aristotle’s Metaphysics of the texts I take into account.