Validating cross racial identity scale
The primary outcome for the study was F & V intake, assessed at baseline and three months later using the composite of two brief self-report frequency measures.
A total of 560 eligible participants were enrolled, of which 468 provided complete 3-month follow-up data.
The experimental group increased their daily mean F & V intake by 1.1 servings compared to .8 servings in the control group (p = .13).
Afrocentric experimental group participants showed a 1.4 increase in F & V servings per day compared to a .43 servings per day increase among Afrocentric controls (p Corresponding author: Ken Resnicow, Ph D Professor University of Michigan School of Public Health Department of Health Behavior & Health Education 109 Observatory Street, Room 3867 SPH I Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029Many targeted health interventions have been developed and tested with African American (AA) populations; however, AAs are a highly heterogeneous group.
Therefore, the Georgia study sample was randomly selected from healthcare system members who attended medical offices where members were primarily AA and who had home addresses in Census blocks in which 80% or more of the residents were AA.
Invitations to participate in the study were mailed to 2018 health plan members.
These group-targeted interventions have generally been more effective in changing behavior than untargeted, general audience health messages (Kreuter, Strecher, & Glassman, 1999; Resnicow, Braithwaite, Ahluwalia, & Di Iorio, 2001; Resnicow et al., 2005). EI includes many elements such as racial/ethnic pride, affinity for in-group culture (e.g., food, media, and language), attitudes toward majority culture, involvement with in-group members, experience with and attitudes regarding racism, attitudes toward intermarriage, and the importance placed on preserving one's culture and aiding others of similar backgrounds (K Resnicow et al., 1999; K Resnicow, R Braithwaite et al., 2001). For some AAs, their African and/or AA culture and heritage play a central role in their personal identity and daily psychosocial functioning, whereas for others, ethnicity and race may only be peripheral elements of self (Sellers, Chavous, & Cooke, 1998; Sellers, Rowley, Chavous, Shelton, & Smith, 1997).
Individually-tailored interventions have been used to modify a wide range of health behaviors (Brug, Oenema, & Campbell, 2003; Noar, Benac, & Harris, 2007) across a variety of populations (Campbell et al., 1999; Campbell et al., 2004; M. The focus on F & V intake was due to AAs' higher rates of diet-related illnesses (National Center for Health Statistics, 2006), lower F &V intake (Kant, Graubard, & Kumanyika, 2007; Serdula et al., 2004), and under-representation in prior tailored dietary intervention studies.
Both healthcare systems were asked to provide randomly selected lists of AA adults ages 21 to 70.
Only the Detroit healthcare system had race indicated in their electronic records.
Several variables were found to interact with intervention group.
For instance, Afrocentric experimental group participants showed a 1.4 increase in F & V servings per day compared to a .43 servings per day increase among Afrocentric controls (p Although the overall between-group effects were not significant, this study confirms that AAs are a highly diverse population and that tailoring dietary messages on ethnic identity may improve intervention impact for some AA subgroups.Almost all of these have been “targeted” interventions, whereby all participants receive identical intervention messages and materials. However, tailoring on individual Ethnic Identity (EI) has not been explored.